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What Is The ADDIE Mannequin Of Tutorial Design?

Understand the ADDIE model of instruction design

Without a well thought out lifecycle, any development process will not produce high quality results. There are some development life cycles in the eLearning industry that are rigorously followed. Among them, the ADDIE model is the most widely used. ADDIE stands for its five successive phases: analyzing, designing, developing, implementing and evaluating. It is inherently a waterfall model. That is, its phases are followed one after the other.

The ADDIE model was developed back in the 1970s by the Florida State University’s Center for Educational Technology. Just like the instruction drafting process, it was developed for the training of the US military.

What is the ADDIE model?

The model was built and refined by the educators, the current version was derived in the mid-1980s. The name and procedure have remained largely unchanged so far. Let’s understand the ADDIE model in detail.


Every project begins by analyzing various aspects of the project and the business needs. Common analyzes carried out in this phase include target group analysis, task analysis, training needs analysis, gap analysis, deployment analysis, etc.

The analysis result serves as input for the next phase, the design phase.


Once the analysis report is ready, it is time to design the details of the training program. Some of the most important areas to consider during the design phase are:

  • Obtaining the content
  • The types of media that you can use – audio, video, text, and graphics
  • Types and degrees of interactivity
  • Instructional approach
  • High-level table of contents
  • The time frame for the modules
  • Detailed instruction design document
  • Navigation, progress, and restrictions, if any
  • Learning successes
  • Examination requirements, course completion criteria
  • User interface and other technical specifications
  • Quality assurance inspection plan
  • Evaluation and feedback mechanism


After completing the design phase, the development phase begins. It is roughly divided into 3 main phases:

  1. Storyboarding
    With storyboarding, the original training content is adapted to the needs of the learner and suitable for eLearning development. The storyboard serves as input for the media development phase.
  2. Media development
    Once the storyboard has been approved by the subject matter expert, the media team begins developing the course media using various authoring tools such as Articulate Storyline and audio integration. The developed module is fed into the quality assurance process.
  3. quality assurance
    It includes testing the developed module according to the defined test criteria to ensure that the module meets the customer-defined acceptance criteria.

Media development usually takes place in various sub-phases, commonly referred to as alpha, beta, and gold development. Alpha is the first version that offers a complete look and feel of the module.

Any improvements made to the alpha version will be incorporated into the final audio for the beta version to be released. Gold is the final version after all required changes have been incorporated into the beta version and is usually a SCORM package that can be deployed in a Learning Management System (LMS).


After the module has been developed, it will be used by the target learners via the LMS. This phase collects user feedback that is used to evaluate the module.

Rate it

This phase shows how successful the module was in achieving its learning and business goals. There are many models to evaluate the effectiveness of the module, the most widely used is the Kirkpatrick 4-step model.

The results of the evaluation are feedback on the project; necessary improvements are implemented.

The waterfall character of the ADDIE model offers many advantages:

  • All analyzes are carried out at the beginning so that the possibility of changes at a later time is minimized.
  • A later phase only begins after the previous phase has been completed and approved. This means that it will complete the project in phases.
  • It’s easy to understand, plan, track, and execute.
  • It reduces ambiguity as all phases are signed off individually.


The waterfall nature of the ADDIE model also has some drawbacks. In a scenario where the end result is unknown, this model cannot produce good results. If the analysis or design fails, it gets stuck in the end, where it is more costly to change the project requirement. It is less dynamic and not a useful model in unfamiliar situations.


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