Canada Association of Tourism Employees

Educational Design And Improvement Course of

Instructional Design Models of Learning

Instructional design is one of the most basic methods of building and delivering learning experiences. Nowadays it is hard to imagine creating an online course without interacting with instructional designers as there are more than 64,000 instructional designers. But what is instruction design in the training and development process? We will analyze this in our article.

What is instruction design?

Instructional design is a process that aids in the design, creation, and delivery of teaching resources, experiences, and courses. Also known as Instructional Systems Design (ISD), this discipline takes a tiered approach to effectively creating various successful online courses. In simpler terms, classroom design is about using our knowledge of how people learn to guide our classroom sequences and strategies to meet student needs and desired learning outcomes.

The implementation of the instruction design is carried out by specialists called instruction designers. You are involved in the development of teaching materials, namely the formation of units, material presentations, supporting materials and much more. However, the curriculum planner’s catalog of tasks also includes the following points:

  • Conduct a needs assessment to determine what exactly the study group wants
  • An analysis of the needs that can be met through training and how those needs can be met
  • Establishing learning goals that will be a measure of the success of the educational process in the future
  • Collecting initial information about the target group of students (motivational factors, behavioral patterns, background knowledge and much more)
  • Development of educational strategy, curriculum and teaching methods
  • Monitoring of learning outcomes to assess the success of the whole learning process

One of the qualities of instructional designers is material neutrality, which means they can work with any subject. That makes them very flexible and indispensable professionals.

Instructional design models

Instructional design is a fairly extensive process that involves various design models with specific features that are worth discussing separately. We’ve rounded up three of the most popular models you may come across when developing online courses.

1. ADDIE model

Let’s begin our analysis with one of the most popular instruction design models, which is considered the unspoken standard for developing learning experiences. ADDIE stands for analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation.


This is the first phase, without which further development of the teaching material is not possible. Curriculum planners work with SMEs to define your requirements, the main objectives of your course, its purpose and more. In addition, this phase includes an analysis of the target audience of future students, their age, gender, existing education, work, and other facts that will influence the formation of future content.


The second step is to outline your course, the concept, if you wish. This will help outline an abstract idea and roughly understand the appearance of the course. In addition, specific practical learning objectives are written during the design process and a storyboard for the future course is created.


Once the concept for the course is ready, it is time to start developing the content. This phase encompasses the entire creative process: writing teaching material, structuring it, creating pictures, writing scripts for videos, shooting, editing, working on practical tasks and much more.


All materials are ready and now the main task is to pack all of this into a fully fledged online course and implement it in the educational platform. This process can be carried out by both the course owner and a dedicated professional team of specialists.


If you thought work on the course was finished by this point, then this is not entirely true. The main work has been completed, but now comes a persistent evaluation of the effectiveness of your efforts. They collect feedback from students, monitor learning outcomes, monitor assessments, and based on all this information, generate a report that clearly shows whether your learning goals have been achieved.

2. Merrill’s Instructional Policy (MPI)

MPI is a pioneer and the first educational design model developed in 2002. This model was proposed by David Merrill and consists of 5 key principles that aim to extract the maximum amount of knowledge from the course.

  1. Task-centered principle
    The first principle is that students relate to problems and tasks that they can handle. In addition, learning always starts with real problems.
  2. Activation principle
    The second principle is that the course must activate the student’s pre-existing knowledge. This makes it easier to connect the existing knowledge base of the students with the new knowledge that the course conveys.
  3. Demonstration principle
    The third principle obliges the course to demonstrate knowledge by various means (text, audio, video, etc.). This helps to process knowledge faster and more efficiently.
  4. Application principle
    The fourth principle aims to encourage students to apply the knowledge they have acquired on their own. So they can feel the benefits of the knowledge they have gained and learn from their mistakes.
  5. Integration principle
    The fifth and last principle obliges the course to offer students opportunities to integrate knowledge into their world through discussion, reflection and presentation of new knowledge.

3. Gagnes nine classroom events

This instruction design model was proposed by Robert Gagne and is based on a systematic learning development process. The sequence of steps helps create a flexible model in which events can be adapted to different learning situations.

  1. attract attention
    The first step is to attract the students’ attention through various stimuli (new ideas, different reflections, etc.).
  2. Inform students
    In this phase, you teach students about the learning objectives and expected outcomes.
  3. Stimulating reminder
    Before giving new knowledge, you need to activate the existing knowledge.
  4. Present the content
    All educational content should be presented in the form of easily consumed chunks.
  5. Providing guidance to learners
    The teacher should provide support and various subject materials to complement the classroom material.
  6. Get performance
    The teacher engages students in various activities that stimulate the application of the knowledge acquired.
  7. give feedback
    Every successful course of study must be supported by comprehensive feedback.
  8. performance evaluation
    Knowledge should be tested against various transparent criteria and in a variety of ways.
  9. Improvement of the bond
    Learning must continuously improve in order to increase student loyalty.

Advantages of the lesson design

Now is the time to talk about the benefits that teaching design brings to the online learning space.

Instructional design increases learning efficiency

Even if the information is often publicly available, there is a big difference between being open to information and understanding it.

When students study on their own with little or no guidance, they spend a lot of time analyzing superfluous information. The effectiveness of the training increases considerably if the information analysis is carried out before the start of the training. Instructional Design helps students get straight to key information that the instructional designers have already properly structured.

Instruction design improves engagement in learning

If your training is aimed at teaching students how to make a shelf with their own hands, then you can simply list all the necessary steps. However, the engagement of this approach is very dubious. Furthermore, it is not a fact that students are appropriately absorbing all information.

It will be more fun to turn these steps into an activity that allows students to go through the whole process independently, studying each step in detail. This is what the instruction design is for; It focuses on the learner’s experience and how it can be made stimulating, memorable, and realistic.

Instruction design influences the end result

Instructional design is crucial for online course developers as it helps avoid boring clicks alongside courses that are not interactive or memorable. Design mockups help create interactive courses that students crave and generate interest and learning.

In addition, cursors created with educational design models bring all important information to the fore, which drastically reduces training time. The combination of these factors ensures that people are paying attention and retaining new knowledge or skills they have learned, making learning a worthwhile investment.


As you can see, the importance of lesson models and lesson design can hardly be overestimated. Instruction design helps improve the quality of teaching by making it more effective, engaging and attractive. And if you want to create your online course, having a curriculum vitae on your team is a must.

However, if developing your course requires a more professional approach, we recommend reaching out to a professional company with extensive experience creating courses based on teaching design.

Post a Comment

You don't have permission to register